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Temaartikel: Indholdsstoffer i jordbær

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Af Mogens T. Jensen, www.biosite.dk

Jordbær

Jordbær 

Generelt

Indholdet i jordbær (Fragaria x ananassa) af protein, fedt, sukkerstoffer (mono- og disaccharider), carbohydrater, aromastoffer, smagsstoffer, vitaminer og mineraler varierer alt efter sorten, dyrkningssted, sæsonens temperaturer, solmængde og regnmængde, høsttidspunkt og dyrkningsmetode.

Se også sekundære metbolitter.

Indhold af næringsstoffer, indhold pr 100 g netto:
Bemærk angivelserne er gennemsnitsværdier
Generelt Aminosyrer (i mg)
Energi 183 kJ Isoleucin 25
Total protein 0,7 g Leucin 40
Total carbohydrat 8,7 g Lysin 36
Aske 0,4 g Methionin 10
Vand 89,6 Cystin 4
Vitaminer Phenylalanin 23
A-vitamin 6,67 RE Tyrosin 11
Retinol 0,0 μg Threonin 23
β-Caroten 40 μg Tryptophan 8
D-vitamin 0,0 μg Valin 29
E-vitamin (α-tocopherol) 0,45 mg Arginin 41
K1-vitamin 20 μg Histidin 12
Thiamin (B1-vitamin) 0,020 mg Alanin 31
Riboflavin (B2-vitamin) 0,03 mg Asparaginsyre 98
Niacin 0,73 NE Glutaminsyre 92
niacin 0,60 mg Glycin 26
tryptophans bidrag 0,12 mg Prolin 24
B6-vitamin 0,060 mg Serin 30
Pantothensyre 0,34 mg Carbohydrater
Biotin 1,1 μg Stivelse 0,0
Folacin 63 μg Kostfibre 1,6 g
B12-vitamin 0,0 Sukre ialt 4,57 g
C-vitamin 68 mg Glucose 2,1 g
Mineraler Fructose 2,39 g
Natrium 4,0 mg Sucrose 0,080 g
Nikkel 3,76 μg Maltose  
Kalium 147 mg Fedtsyrer
Calcium 20 mg C 16:0 0,048 g
Magnesium 11 mg C 18:1, n-9 0,08 g
Phosphor 28 mg C 18:2, n-6 0,176 g
Jern 0,35 mg C 18:3, n-3 1,60 g
Kobber 0,039 mg    
Zink 0,098 mg    
Iod 0,60 μg    
Mangan 0,43 mg    
Chrom 0,3 μg    
Selen 0,20 μg    
Kilde: Levnedsmiddeltabeller, Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen, 1996 og andre

 

Strukturelle komponenter

Polysaccharider: Pektin, cellulose,

 

Polyphenoler, flavonoler og phenoliske syrer:

Ellagsyre, kaempferol, quercetin, p-coumarsyre (Häkkinen og Törrönen, 2000), myricetin, kaffesyre, ferulasyre, p-hydroxybenzoesyre og gallussyre (Häkkinen, 2000).

 

Aromastoffer og andre flygtige forbindelser der er fundet i jordbær:

Jordbæraroma er som så mange andre bær og frugter kendetegnet ved et relativt højt indhold af estre, estre har ofte en frugtagtig lugt.

Alkoholer Carbonylforbindelser Estre Carboxylsyrer Andre
Benzylalkohol Acetaldehyd Butylacetat Eddikesyre  
1-Borneol Acetophenon Ethylacetat Benzoesyre Acetoin
1-Butanol Acetone Ethylacetoacetat Smørsyre (= butansyre) γ-Decalacton
2-Butanol Acrolein Ethylbenzoat Capronsyre (= hexansyre) 1,1-Diethoxyethan
Ethanol n-Butanal Ethylbutyrat Kanelsyre 1,1-Dimethoxyethan
2-Heptanol Crotonal (= 2-butenal) Ethylcaproat (= ethylhexanoat) Myresyre Dimethoxymethan
1-Hexanol Diacetyl Ethylkanelsyre Isosmørsyre (= 2-methylpropionsyre) Dimethylsulfid
trans-2-Hexenol 2-Heptanon Ethylcrotonat Isovaleriansyre (= 3-methylbutansyre) 1-Ethoxy-1-propoxyethan
p-Hydroxyphenyl-2-ethanol   Ethylformat α-Methylsmørsyre (= 2-methylbutansyre) Hydrogensulfid
3-Methyl-1-butanol (Isoamylalkohol) Hexanal Ethylisobutyrat Propionsyre Maltol
Isobutanol trans-2-Hexenal (= (E)-2-hexenal) Ethylisovalerat Salicylsyre 1-Methoxy-1-ethoxyethan
Isofenchylalkohol Methyl 3-butanon Ethyl α-methylbutyrat (= ethyl 2-methylbutanoat) Ravsyre Furaneol
Methanol 2-Pentanon Ethylpropionat n-Valeriansyre (= 1-pentansyre) Linalool
Pentan-1-ol 2-Pentenal Ethylsalicylat Octansyre 2,5-Dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanon
1-Penten-3-ol Propanal Ethylvalerat   2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanon (=furaneol)
Phenyl-2-ethanol 2,3-Butandion trans-2-hexenyl   Methylanthranilat
n-Propanol 3-Methyl-2-butanon trans-2-hexenylacetat   Eugenol
dl-α-Terpineol 2-Hexanon Hexylacetat   δ-Decalacton
2-Pentanol 3-Methyl-2-pentanon Hexylbutyrat   (Z)-Nerolidol
2-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-4-pentenal Isopropylbutyrat   (E)-Nerolidol
3-Methyl-1-butanol cis-3-Hexenal Methylacetat   γ-Dodecalacton
(Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol 5-Methyl-2-hexanon Methylbutyrat   β-Damascenon
  Benzaldehyd Methylcapronat (= methylhexanoat)    
  Octanal Methylisobutyrat    
  6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-on Methyl α-methylbutyrat (= methyl 2-methylbutanoat)    
    Propylacetat    
    Methylpentanoat    
    1-Methylethylbutanoat    
    Ethyl 3-methylbutanoat    
    3-Methylbutylacetat    
    Propylbutanoat    
    Ethylpentanoat    
    Pentylacetat    
    Methylhexanoat    
    Butylbutanoat    
    trans-hex-2-enylacetat    
    1-Methylethylacetat    
    Methyl 4-methylpentanoat    
    Methylpropanoat    
    Methylethylhexanoat    
         
         
         
Fenarolis Handbook of Flavor Ingredients med flere

Farvegivende stoffer:

Carotener: α-Caroten, lutein

Anthocyaniner.

Se også: Aroma og smag - kemien bag og jordbæraldehyd.

Referencer:

Hakala, M.A., Lapveteläinen, A.T. and Kallio, H.P. 2002. Volatile compounds of selected strawberry varieties analyzed by purge-and-trap headsspace GC-MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:1133-1142; Häkkinen, S. 2000. Flavonols and phenolic acids in berries and berry products. Doctoral dissertation, Kuopio, Finland, 93pp.;  Häkkinen, S.H. and Törrönen, A.R. 2000. Content of flavonols and selected phenolic acids in strawberries and Vaccinium species: influence of cultivar, cultivation site and technique. Food Research International 33:517-524; Lavid, N. et al. 2002. Aroma biosynthesis in strawberry. S-Adenosylmethionine:Furaneol o-methyltransferase activity in ripening fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:4025-4030; Urruty, L., Giraudel, J.-L., Lek, S., Roudeillac, P., and Montury, M. 2002. Assessment of strawberry aroma through SPME/GC and ANN methods. Classification and discrimination of varieties. J. Agric Food Chem. 50:3129-3136; Oregon strawberry comission product development guide u.å.

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